The profit and loss (P&L) statement is a financial statement that summarizes the revenues, costs, and expenses incurred during a specified period, usually a fiscal quarter or year. These records provide information about a company’s ability or inability to generate profit by increasing revenue, reducing costs, or both.
Gross profit is the profit a company makes after deducting the costs associated with making and selling its products, or the costs associated with providing its services. Gross profit will appear on a company’s income statement and can be calculated by subtracting the cost of goods sold (COGS) from revenue (sales).
Example: You can find the gross profit by subtracting the cost of goods sold (COGS) from the revenue. For example, if a company had $10,000 in revenue and $4,000 in COGS, the gross profit would be $6,000.
Operating profit is the profitability of the business, before taking into account interest and taxes. To determine operating profit, operating expenses are subtracted from gross profit. Operating profit is a key number for managers to watch as it reflects the revenue and expenses that they can control.
Formula: Operating Profit = Gross Profit – Operating Expenses – Depreciation – Amortization. Operating Profit = Net Profit + Interest Expenses + Taxes.
Net profit is the gross profit (revenue minus COGS) minus operating expenses and all other expenses, such as taxes and interest paid on debt. Although it may appear more complicated, net profit is calculated for us and provided on the income statement as net income.
Formula: Net profit = total revenue after expenses, to calculate net profit, you just take your total revenue for a period of time and subtract your total expenses from that same time period.